Category Archives: Education

Good Ole Chicken Egg

I can remember eating chicken eggs since I was a young lad, but up until recently I never gave them a second thought. After helping take care of chickens and now wanting chickens of my own I seem to have developed an intrigue and a desire to know more about the EGG.

After traveling deep into the Himalayan mountains to find the secrets of the allusive chicken egg I realized I could just google it and save myself a lot of time.

Putting it simply there are EIGHT main parts to the chicken egg.  The inner and outer membrane, shell, yolk, vitelline membrane, air cell, chalazae, and the albumen.

The inner and outer membrane lies between the eggshell and the egg white, these two transparent protein membranes provide defense from a myriad of bacterial invaders. They’re made partly of keratin, which is one of a family of fibrous structural proteins. It is the key structural material making up hair, horns, claws, hooves, and the outer layer of human skin. 

Next is the shell, ya know the part that’s really hard to get off after you hardboil an egg. Most shells have a bumpy and grainy texture. There can be as many as 17,000 pores!!! The shell it self is a semipermeable membrane, which allows air and moisture to pass through. A thin outermost layer called the bloom or cuticle functions as another barrier to protect the precious golden cargo from bacteria and particulates.

The yolk, that tiny golden sun, contains water, protein, some fat, andmost of the vitamins and minerals of the egg. It is also a source of lecithin, an effective emulsifier. Yolk color ranges from just a smidge of yellow to a splendid deep orange, according to the feed and breed of the hen.

Gently embracing the yolk in a blanket of love and warmth is the vitelline membrane. This is simply a clear casing that encloses the yolk.

If you were to stand an egg upright, the pointy end up, at the bottom is where the air cell would be located. The space forms when the egg is cooled. It usually is between the outer and inner membrane, and this is the reason why you will at times find a crater on the “bottom” of a hard boiled egg. As the egg ages the air cell will grow larger.

The chalazae are located on opposing sides of the yolk and act as an anchoring system to keep the yolk centered within the egg.  The fresher the egg is, the more prominent the chalazae.

The word albumen is derived from the Latin word albus, which means white. In general the albumen is primarily composed of water and contains about 40 different types of proteins. There are two layers of the albumen; the exterior and the interior. The exterior albumen is a narrow fluid layer that is located next to the shell membrane and is usually very thin. The interior albumen is thicker and is found next to the egg yolk.

Its funny how a random tangential thought can take you down a path that may at first seem quite short and uninterested, but once you start down it you see how deep and interconnected it is. We barley scratched the surface of all that emcompasses the chicken egg let alone all the other eggs out there!!



A Sustainable Ag Education

Between starting the AmeriCorps gig, learning the ropes of Agricultural Economic Development in Polk County, and exploring the diverse communities and landscapes of WNC, the past few months have been a bit of a whirlwind.  An exciting whirlwind! Which has included a valuable professional development experience that I’d like to share now that things have quieted down a bit.

From November 4th to November 6th, 2016, the Polk County Farms team got to attend the Carolina Farm Stewardship Association (CFSA) Sustainable Agriculture Conference in Durham, NC.  As someone with a beginner level of agricultural and horticultural experience, I was excited by the opportunity to deepen my knowledge and to learn best practices from food and farming pioneers.

My CFSA conference experience began on Friday with a half-day pre-conference Intensive on fermentation from the team at Two Chicks Farm.  Aside from viewing a SCOBY (short for Symbiotic Culture of Bacteria and Yeast) one time and being mildly grossed out by the sight of it, I knew little about fermenting prior to attending this workshop.  As you may know, fermentation is a metabolic process that converts sugar into acids, gases, or alcohol.  Many of us consume fermented products everyday: sourdough bread, cheese, pickles, and, of course, beer.  The presenters did an excellent job of sharing the cultural significance of fermentation and the science behind the process; they explained that the SCOBY that I was once freaked out by is, in fact, beneficial for gut health and immune system development.

I also appreciated the fact that the presenters explained the history of Two Chicks Farm, from how they first got into fermentation to how they’ve grown their business over time.  They provided valuable tips on how to start fermenting and shared helpful resources on the subject.  After walking through some of the basic do’s and don’ts of fermentation, we pulled out our cutting boards and knives for the hands-on portion of the Intensive, in which myself and roughly 30 other attendees got to prepare classic sauerkraut, cortido, and dill kraut & pickles.


Two hours and a banquet hall floor full of cabbage remnants later, I walked out with jars of goodies to take home and ferment to my desired taste.  It was awesome.

The “official” conference took place between Saturday and Sunday and consisted of 65 workshops on varying topics: beginner farmer, farm business, specialty crops, food systems, livestock, and more.  My weekend looked like this:

Workshop A: I nerded out at a policy presentation from Organic Seed Alliance on the state of organic seed in the US.  Bottom line – there is a major need for more skilled organic seed producers in order to keep pace with regional demands for organic crops.

Workshop B: Got schooled on innovative horticultural strategies from permaculture guru, Chuck Marsh.  Living & woven fences = majorly cool.

Workshop C: Learned about NC State’s Fork2Farmer initiative, a video project that highlights farmer-chef relationships and trains farmers on agritourism and hospitality best practices.

Workshop D: Attended a thought-provoking presentation on food as an avenue for equality and social change from Garrett Broad of Fordham University.  Here is an article written by Mr. Broad for any of my fellow ag-tivists who may be interested in learning about his food justice theories.

Workshop E: Sat in on a truly comprehensive presentation on the production, marketing, and sale of cut flowers from Cathy Jones of Perry-winkle Farm.  That lady knows her stuff.

My brain was overloaded with information, both practical and theoretical, by the time Sunday rolled around.  Throughout the weekend I got to eat delicious local food and build my agricultural knowledge base.  But the value of the CFSA conference extends beyond the educational workshops.  The opportunity to connect with like-minded individuals who are working toward a common goal – to build sustainable food systems within their communities – is so important.

To borrow a phrase from Chuck Marsh, I left the conference feeling inspired to “cultivate abundance in a limited world… to consciously rely on living systems again”.  I am looking forward to taking the knowledge that I gained at the CFSA conference and applying it to the remainder of my AmeriCorps term and to the upcoming growing season.